Peter W. Carmel, MD, FAANS, is a pediatric neurosurgeon and chair emeritus of the department of neurological surgery of the New Jersey Medical School. He is a former president of the American Medical Association (AMA), was a member of its Board of Trustees and served as president of the AMA Foundation. Dr. Carmel served as chairman of the National Coalition for Research in Neurological Disease and Stroke, and subsequently as chair of the National Foundation for Brain Research. In this capacity, he helped the late Rep Silvio O. Conte launch the Decade of the Brain initiative, which raised millions of dollars for neurological disease and stroke research. Dr. Carmel has been elected to the board of directors of the National Patient Safety Foundation and the National Health Museum, and currently serves on the New Jersey Commission on Spinal Cord Research.